Re: Fly cast without flies is great, but...
I'm no expert, but I use a similar rig when fishing at Lee's Ferry, and I know that the indicator limits my casting distance most days. I think it's a combination of having 'weight' concentrated beyond the line itself (got this piece of info from a more experienced angler recently), as well as the aerodynamic drag associated with the bobber. The fly itself shouldn't make a difference, unless you tie on something heavy, like a clouser minnow.
I would try casting the rig without the bobber and see if you still have problems with distance and tailing. If not, then you know it's the bobber.
As to how to get more distance with the bobber, I can't really help with that. There have been times when i miraculously hurled the rig 50 ft., but i could probably count the number of times I managed that on one hand. probably 99% of the time I only can reliably cast the rig about 30 ft.
My cure for tailing loops with this set up is to use a pick up lay down type of cast with an open loop/no loop, or a modified belgian type cast. For me, this tends to limit the 'bolo-ing' effect, and consequently reduces tailing.
"Three-fourths of the Earth's surface is water, and one-fourth is land. It is quite clear that the good Lord intended us to spend triple the amount of time fishing as taking care of the lawn." ~Chuck Clark