That's a lot of questions so I'll take the easy one
If you look at places like Bass Pro or Sportsman's Warehouse and even Wal Mart you can find starter sets under $100. They will get you going and I think they come with backing, line, reel, rod, and a booklet to show you how to rig things up.
Welcome to the forum, other members will jump in to help with advice, I took the easy way to answer. I hope you'll post as often as you have questions but as you learn your way around this site you will find lots of them already answered.
Look at the top of the page, see the menu bar where it says 'Forums' third from the left? Click that and scroll down to see all the different topic forums we have. We have one for about everything, in them you'll find about every question you will have already ask and answered.
Welcome to the group,