Wado, welcome to the forum. I see you're up for chasing brook trout too, so i guess you're up for anything.
I think the best thing to do, as far as flies, is to put together a basic selection of patterns that will cover you for trout, bass, carp and panfish.
I'd suggest a few dry flies:
Parachute Adams size 14 for slow water streams and lakes for trout, panfish and maybe carp
Elk Hair Caddis size 14 for trout in fast or slow water streams, lakes and ponds for trout panfish
Royal or Ausable Wulff size 12 good fast water trout fly, but also good for panfish on ponds and lakes
Madame X (or another grasshopper imitation) size 10 for trout, panfish, bass and maybe carp
All of these would be good for wild brook trout in small mountain streams in the Adirondacks, NH, VT, and the Berkshires but you'll probably have to do some hiking to get to them.
Add some wet flies like
Bead Head Gold Ribbed Hares Ear large 10-12 for carp and bass and 12-16 for trout, 12 for both
Bead Head Pheasant Tail Nymph size 14 and 16 for trout and panfish
Add some streamers:
Woolly Bugger size 8 in black and olive for trout, bass, carp in lakes ponds streams and rivers
Marabou or Mohair leech in black, brown and olive for trout, carp, bass in ponds and lakes
Clouser Minnow size 6 in chartreuse, white, and root beer brown for bass and carp in moving or still water
Crayfish pattern for bass and carp in moving water or ponds and lakes especially around rocks for smallmouth.
Muddler minnow size 6 for bass, carp, trout.
Popper or gurgler top water bass
This is sort of a compromise on patterns and sizes that should be pretty versatile for a lot of different stuff and might be a good selection that you could add on to down the road.
If you think you want to tie, a lot of this stuff (buggers, nymphs, simple bucktail and marabou streamers, clousers etc are pretty easy to tie and use inexpensive materials).
As far as where to go, when i was your age and a bit younger I lived in Newton and fished in the Charles near Needham for bass carp and panfish, Walden Pond for trout and Lake Cochituate in Natick for trout and bass which should be all fairly close to you, but I'm sure there are a lot of other places too especially for warmwater (bass panfish and carp). The better trout fishing tends to be further out in western MA on places like the Swift, Deerfield and Housatonic except for some early season (and probably late season stocking) because of high summer water temps.
There's some good info on the Mass dept of fish and wildlife here “Places to Go” MassWildlife - Places to Go
and here : Fishing opportunities (Check out links for “Catch and Release Areas” for trout and “Best Bets for Bass” You should also be able to find out about stocking there too.:
MassWildlife - Fishing Opportunities
Another thing you might want to do is to check out your local fly shop if there is one, or a bait and tackle store if there isn't for fishing recommendations in terms of spots. Pretty much any body of water on golf courses, town ponds, lakes will hold some water fish and there may be some good fishing on parts of the Charles or other rivers you can get into. Some rivers also have shad runs in late spring which can be a lot of fun on a fly rod.
Good luck, keep asking questions, I'm sure folks here will help.