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Old 06-08-2013, 11:40 PM
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Default Dydimo spread not due to felt soled boots?

Max Bothwell, a research scientist for Environment Canada, who wrote an influential article that linked angler's felt soled boots to dydimo spread has now reversed himself and said that anglers are not responsible.

Here is his original article, On the Boots of Fishermen:

http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/wat/wq/stud...ymo-blooms.pdf

He now believes that dydimo has been in North American waters and that it is a change in water chemistry, specifically lower phosphorus levels that has caused dydimo blooms.

Read the article in the current issue of American Angler, July-August, 2013, pp 8-9.

"'I no longer believe the problem is North American streams is the result of it (dydimo) being moved around.' …. Scientists are now convinced that dydimo lives in many streams, but blooms only when the water has far less than the normal amount of phosphorus…… The most damaging dydimo episode in the US seems to have been on Rapid Creek in South dakota, where a six-mile bloom dramatically impacted a blue ribbon brown trout fishery. In 2007 and 2008, Bothwell and other scientists added phosphorus to sections of Rapid Creek. Sure enough, the dydimo mats shrank."
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Old 06-09-2013, 12:52 AM
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Default Re: Dydimo spread not due to felt soled boots?

Very, very interesting.

Thanks for sharing!


Jim
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Old 06-09-2013, 05:38 AM
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Default Re: Dydimo spread not due to felt soled boots?

You really have to give this guy credit.

A true scientist doesn't stop looking once he's found an 'answer'. He continues looking for other possibilities, whether from his own research or from other's research.

It would be nice if all 'scientists' were as careful.
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Old 06-09-2013, 09:00 AM
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Default Re: Dydimo spread not due to felt soled boots?

Silver: Thanks for the article, very interesting read.
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Old 06-09-2013, 09:25 AM
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Default Re: Dydimo spread not due to felt soled boots?

S.Cr., Thank you thank you. I am not a scientist I just play one on this Forum. I have been pleading with the Invasive Species folks to stop vilifying felt over other absorbent, nook and cranny inter-river surfaces including boats and trailers, nets, neoprene cuffs and woven laces. Those who have switched to sticky rubber boots know they are a barely acceptable substitute for felt especially felt with carbide studs. This is so reminiscent of the earlier disproportionate Whirling Disease lie...it was the habitat all along. Don't dare blame us humans, its not our fault!
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Old 06-09-2013, 09:49 AM
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Default Re: Dydimo spread not due to felt soled boots?

Phosphorus may make it bloom, but that doesn't answer the question of how it gets there in the first place. If it never makes it there, you don't have to worry about it blooming.
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Old 06-09-2013, 12:03 PM
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Default Re: Dydimo spread not due to felt soled boots?

Quote:
Originally Posted by Poke 'Em View Post
Phosphorus may make it bloom, but that doesn't answer the question of how it gets there in the first place. If it never makes it there, you don't have to worry about it blooming.
You read my post wrong, phosphorus does NOT make dydimo bloom, it stops it from blooming.

The point being made is that dydimo is already endemic and pervasive in North America. Dydimo has already spread and banning felt is not a solution to preventing further spread. The cows are already out of the barn!

What is causing the spread, I surmise, is the current trend of reducing phosphorus in detergents and lawn fertilizer. So as we get rid of phosphorus to prevent algae blooms we get dydimo blooms.

Ever wonder why NZ has such a problem with dydimo? They have lots of crystal clear streams and rivers with low phosphorus because there is little run off from agriculture and lawns.

Basic epidemiology 101 states that we cannot stop the spread of what has already spread. How we then prevent disease is to make the target population less receptive to the disease. We monitor phosphorus and allow some phosphorus back into lawn fertilizers in dydimo prone watersheds.
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Old 06-09-2013, 12:49 PM
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Red face Re: Dydimo spread not due to felt soled boots?

SC, sorry about the double posting of your thread opener. Forgot you posted here.

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Old 06-09-2013, 01:30 PM
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Default Re: Dydimo spread not due to felt soled boots?

Quote:
Originally Posted by silver creek View Post
You read my post wrong, phosphorus does NOT make dydimo bloom, it stops it from blooming.
Sorry, I meant phosphorus levels.

Quote:
The point being made is that dydimo is already endemic and pervasive in North America. Dydimo has already spread and banning felt is not a solution to preventing further spread. The cows are already out of the barn!
So, didymo is everywhere? I highly doubt it. Yes, it's pervasive, but there are still places that don't have didymo yet. Probably mostly in remote streams (probably all or almost all tailwaters and/or popular fisheries have it), but there are places without it, I'm certain. And yes, it's spread COULD be stopped. The cows may be out of the barn, but they're not in the neighbor's pasture yet.

Quote:
What is causing the spread, I surmise, is the current trend of reducing phosphorus in detergents and lawn fertilizer. So as we get rid of phosphorus to prevent algae blooms we get dydimo blooms.

Ever wonder why NZ has such a problem with dydimo? They have lots of crystal clear streams and rivers with low phosphorus because there is little run off from agriculture and lawns.

Basic epidemiology 101 states that we cannot stop the spread of what has already spread. How we then prevent disease is to make the target population less receptive to the disease. We monitor phosphorus and allow some phosphorus back into lawn fertilizers in dydimo prone watersheds.
If we only look at fisheries downstream of golf courses, then your theory holds true. But there are lots of waterways that have probably never seen an ounce of fertilizer. Besides, I really don't think the solution to fixing one water quality issue (didymo) is to promote another (fertilizer).
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Old 06-09-2013, 02:00 PM
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Default Re: Dydimo spread not due to felt soled boots?

Read this if you think decontamination or rubber soles can stop invasives.

Decontamination with some chemicals actually shorten the life of waders and wading boots. Download a State of California DFG study on methods of decontaminating for New Zealand Mud Snails to see the damage done to waders and boots. Waders and boots disintegrated with the use of chemical decontamination.

Plus changing rubber for felt does little good.

"NZMS were observed on the tongue area of wading boots, associated with the laces or the area of the tongue that was tucked beneath the lacing eyelets. Large numbers of small NZMS were present inside of the boots, having worked down between the boot and the neoprene bootie of the wader. If the boots contained padded insole inserts, NZMS were also found underneath the inserts, associated with sand grains."

In the report below, invasives were found under the innersole and other hidden crevices in wading boots. Modern wading boots have drain holes that allow the water to drain from boots once we exit the stream. These drain holes also allow invasives including dydimo to enter, and they are flushed into every crevice of the inner boot as we wade. It is apparent to me that there are plenty of places for invasives to hide besides the boot soles. You could not invent a better method of spreading invasives into the inner boot than drain holes.

To adequately decontaminate a boot you need to remove any inserts and decontaminate each boot part by soaking in a chemical solution.

Click on the link to download a pdf of the official report by the State of California, The Resources Agency, Dept. Of Fish and Game.


http://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=3867


In January or 2007, the EPA and The Federation of Fly Fishers published a white paper on Dydymo. The white paper says:

"While decontamination will not destroy all invasive species, cleaning procedures minimize the possibility of spread. These simple treatments effectively destroy D. geminata algal cells (Kilroy 2005):" The white paper then goes on to recommend a 2% solution of bleach. Clorox is a 6% solution so a 2% solution 2 parts water to 1 part Clorox. Try putting just a drop of that on a pair of blue jeans and see what happens.

http://www.epa.gov/region8/water/did...Jan%202007.pdf

So the both the California Dept. of Fish and Game and the EPA recommend what I consider to be harsh chemicals that damage waders and boots. They also admit that there is no single magic treatment for all invasive organisms.
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